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Danaus chrysippus


Danaus chrysippus
Photo Information
Copyright: philippe hornus (amanengone) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 188 W: 54 N: 412] (2113)
Genre: Animals
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2011-11-17
Categories: Insects
Camera: Canon PowerShot G12
Exposure: f/4.5, 1/160 seconds
Map: [view]
Photo Version: Original Version, Workshop
Theme(s): Butterflies [view contributor(s)]
Date Submitted: 2012-01-09 7:58
Viewed: 4423
Points: 0
[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note [French]
Butterfly

Photograph taken in plantations near the town of Benin City, close to the Ologbo protected area.

Danaus chrysippusLinnaeus, 1758

• English:Plain tiger, Tigger Common, Lesser Wanderer, African Queen
• German:Kleine Monarch, Monarch Afrikanisher, Gewφnlischer Tiger
• French:Small Monarch

Classification

• Kingdom:Animalia
• Subkingdom:Metazoa
• Phylum:Arthropoda
• Subphylum:Hexapoda
• Class:Insecta
• Sub-Class:Pterygota
• Infra-Class:Neoptera
• Super-Order:endopterygotes
• Order:Lepidoptera
• Suborder:Macrolepidoptera
• Superfamily:Papilionoidea
• Family:Nymphalidae
• Subfamily:Danainae
• Genre:Danaus
• Species:Danaus chrysippus Linnaeus, 1758

Protection Status

• Taxon unprotected and not listed in the IUCN Red List.

Origin and distribution

• Butterfly very ubiquitous, Europe, Africa, Sri Lanka, India, China, Sulawesi.

Ecology:

• Danaus chrysippus is a butterfly that can live in many biotope, from desert, to the height mountains, up to more than 1500 m), passing through tropical rainforest areas (in open habitats).

Behavior

• Danaus chrysippus, like most butterflies lives with his wings closed in general.
• During its migrations, when it arises near the ground or on plant material, it opens its wings and turns them toward the sun. Thus they are fully exposed to sunlight.
• Danaus chrysippus is protected from attacks by the association of its colors, the speed of its flight (slow, giving every opportunity to its predators to recognize him) and the presence in its body of emetic alkaloids. Predators "understand" that the butterfly should not be ingested, they pass their way.
• Another defense is to mimic a state of death and issue a smelly secretion. Perceiving these odors, predators spend their way. It seems then, for the novice, as Danaus chrysippus is capable of a "miraculous" resurrection after a predator attack.

Description:

• It is a medium sized butterfly (seven to eight centimeters). Its body is rather dark, ornate white punctuation.
• The wings are colored orange, more or less dark. The apex of the forewing is brown to black, ornamented with large white dots, sometimes coalescing into a white band crossed by the ribs. The posterior edge of the wings is also dark and provided with semi-circular white dots. The hind wings are ornamented by three black dots in the center.
• The hind wings of the male carry on rib number 2 a black punctuation bordered white. It is a gland emitting a pheromone attractive to females.
• Males specimen are smaller, but more brightly colored than females.

Mimicry

• Given its defensive behavior, evolution has led to other species of butterflies that look very similar to Danaus chrysippus: adopting a same dress, the mimes are able to escape predators, who confuse them withDanaus chrysippus.

Economic Importance

• Except for pollinating activities, the butterfly does not have much economic impact.

Sources:

1._ Larsen - Butterflies of West Africa - Apollo Books, 1997
2._ Tom Tolman and Richard Lewington - Guide to the Butterflies of Europe and North Africa

Sites

• Acres in Wikipedia
• Acres in Wikipedia
• Lepidoptera of Europe
• Photo gallery insect
• Danaus chrysippus in Arkive.org
• Danaus chrysippus In Encyclopedia of Life

The photograph

Clichι pleine taille dans Picassa web

Seconde vue du clichι dans Picassa web

In the workshop, another view of the same; thank you for your opinion.

camera:

• Camera: Canon PowerShot G12
• Objective: 30 mm
• Aperture: f/4.5
• Speed: 1/160
• Shooting: Automatic
• Measures: Central
• Conditions: Sunny, with undergrowth.
• Time: 8:57 a.m.
• Sensitivity: ISO-80

Terms shooting

• Sunny, with good illumination, aperture f/4.5 for speed 1 / 500.

shooting:

• Original Size: 3648 x 2736 px
• Format: Jpeg
• Resolution: 180 dpi x 180 dpi
• Color: sRGB
• Finished format: 791 x 600 jpg
• Crop: 30%
• Image processing: Olympus Studio and Corel Photo Paint ; Trim, edit gamma, saturation and sharpness
• Elimination of noise: NeatImage


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