|Copyright: Nagesh Vannur (nagesh)
|Date Taken: 2014-10-15|
|Categories: Water Plants|
|Photo Version: Original Version|
|Date Submitted: 2014-10-16 3:35|
|[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note|
Hoya is an Asclepiad genus of 200–300 species of tropical plants in the family Apocynaceae (Dogbane). Most are native to Asia including India, China, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia, There is a great diversity of species in the Philippines, and species in Polynesia, New Guinea, and Australia.
Common names for this genus are waxplant, waxvine, waxflower or simply hoya. This genus was named by botanist Robert Brown, in honour of his friend, botanist Thomas Hoy.
Hoyas are evergreen perennial creepers or vines or rarely, shrubs. They often grow epiphytically on trees; some grow terrestrially, or occasionally in rocky areas. They climb by twining, and with the employment of adventitious roots. Larger species grow 1–18 m (3–59 ft), or more, with suitable support in trees. They have simple entire leaves, arranged in an opposite pattern, that are typically succulent. Leaves may exhibit a variety of forms, and may be smooth, felted or hairy; veination may be prominent or not, and many species have leaf surfaces flecked with irregular small silvery spots.
The flowers appear in axillary umbellate clusters at the tip of peduncles. Hoya peduncles are commonly referred to as spurs. In most species these spurs are perennial and are rarely shed. Each flowering cycle increases the length of the spur, and in the larger species can eventually reach 27 cm (11 in) or more. Flowers vary in size from 3 mm (0.1 in) (Hoya bilobata Schltr.) to over 95 mm (4 in) (in H. lauterbachii K. Schuman) in diameter. Flower form is typically star-shaped, with five thick, waxy, triangular petals, topped with another star-shaped structure, the corona. Colours on most species range from white to pink; there are species that exhibit yellow to orange, dark reds to near-black, and there are green flowers. Many are sweetly scented. and most produce abundant nectar.
Pollinators include moths, flies, and ants. Pollination is poorly understood, but plants left outdoors in temperate regions do sometimes produce seed, indicating pollination by local insects.
Seeds are borne in twin pods, actually follicles, are generally light, and are dispersed by the wind by means of a small tuft of silky fluff. Germination is rapid, but viability is not long.
At least some species exhibit Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM), including H. carnosa.
Several species exhibit adaptations for mutualism with ants by providing modified leaves for domatia ("homes"), much as in the related genus Dischidia; H. imbricata has leaves that form a concave cup over the tree trunk it climbs up to shelter ants, and H. darwinii has arrangements of bullate leaves on its stems to form shelters.
Hoya leaves vary in size, texture, color and venation. In size, leaves range from as small as 5 mm in length and 2 to 4 mm in width (Hoya engleriana Hosseus) to as large as 25 cm by 35 cm. (Hoya latifolia G. Don). Hoya coriacea Blume, has been reported have leaves as long as two feet in length. There are hoyas with almost perfectly round leaves and others with linear leaves (Hoya linearis Wall. ex. D. Don and Hoya teretifolia Griff. ex Hook. f.). One popular species, Hoya shepherdii Short ex Hook. has leaves that resemble string beans hanging in bunches from their stalks. Hoya linearis Wall. ex D. Don is covered with fine downy hair and resembles masses of Spanish Moss (Tillandsia usneoides) hanging from trees in its native habitat. Some Hoya leaves are smooth and shiny; some are covered with hairs. Some Hoya leaves appear to be veinless while others have very conspicuous veins of a lighter or darker colour than the rest of the leaves as in H. cinnomomifolia. Some have leaves that are mottled with speckles of silvery white (Hoya carnosa R. Br., Hoya pubicalyx). Some hoyas have leaves that are thin and translucent (Hoya coriacea Blume); some are so thick and succulent that they look more like crassulas than hoyas (Hoya australis ssp. rupicola, oramicola and saniae from Australia and Hoya pachyclada from Thailand). One of the most succulent, Hoya kerrii Craib, has valentine heart shaped leaves, with notches at the apexes of the leaves instead of at the bases.
Hoya flowers are all shaped like five pointed stars. Some of the species' petals reflex so far that the flowers appear to be round or ball-like. They grow in umbels, or in some species singly. Umbels can reach impressive proportions in some species, and many species have individual flowers well over three inches in diameter (H. imperialis Lindl., H. lauterbachii K. Schuman). H. coriacea Blume has been known to have as many as 70 in an inflorescence, each individual measuring nearly 2 cm in diameter with the umbels over 30 cm in breadth. The single-flowered Hoya pauciflora Wight makes up for its paucity by its flower size of nearly an inch and a half in diameter produced at any time of year. Textures of flower surfaces may be glabrous and shiny, to matte, to finely haired, and some being quite hairy. One of the two clones of Hoya mindorensis Schltr., from the Philippines, comes very close to being a true red. Blue, purples, and violets do not appear to be represented in the genus Hoya.
Species listed here are those given in Albers & Meve (2002) and accepted by both The Plant List and Tropicos.
Hoya anulata – Australia (Queensland), Indonesia (Irian Jaya), Papua New Guinea
Hoya archboldiana – Indonesia, Papua New Guinea
Hoya australis – Australia, Fiji, Indonesia (Irian Jaya), Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga
Hoya australis ssp. australis – Australia (Queensland, New South Wales), Samoa, Vanuatu
Hoya australis ssp. oramicola – Australia (Northern Territory)
Hoya australis ssp. rupicola – Australia (Western Australia, Northern Territory)
Hoya australis ssp. sanae Australia (Queensland)
Hoya australis ssp. tenuipes – Australia (Queensland), Fiji, Indonesia (Irian Jaya), Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga
Hoya benguetensis – Philippines
Hoya bilobata – Philippines
Hoya bordenii – Philippines
Hoya calycina – Indonesia, Papua New Guinea
Hoya calycina ssp. calycina Indonesia (Irian Jaya), Papua New Guinea
Hoya calycina ssp. glabrifolia – Indonesia (Irian Jaya), Papua New Guinea
Hoya carnosa – S. China, India, Japan, Taiwan, Australia (Queensland), Fiji
Hoya caudata – Malaysia (Malacca), S. Thailand
Hoya cinnamomifolia – Indonesia (Java)
Hoya coriacea – Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand
Hoya crassicaulis – Philippines
Hoya cumingiana – Philippines
Hoya diptera – Fiji (Viti Levu, Taviuni)
Hoya diversifolia – Cambodia, Indonesia (Borneo, Java, Sumatra), Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, S. Thailand, S. Vietnam
Hoya eitapensis – Papua New Guinea
Hoya elliptica – Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore
Hoya engleriana – Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam
Hoya erythrostemma – Malaysia, Myanmar, S. Thailand
Hoya finlaysonii – Indonesia (Borneo, Sumatra), Malaysia, Myanmar, S. Thailand
Hoya fuscomarginata – Only known from cultivation.
Hoya globulosa – India (Sikkim), Nepal
Hoya heuschkeliana – Philippines (Luzon)
Hoya hypolasia – Papua New Guinea
Hoya imbricata – Indonesia (Sulawesi), Philippines
Hoya imperialis Philippines, Malaysia
Hoya inconspicua – Australia (Queensland), Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands
Hoya kentiana – Philippines
Hoya kerrii – China, Cambodia, Indonesia (Java), Laos, NW. Thailand, S. Vietnam
Hoya lacunosa – India, China, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia (Borneo, Java, Sumatra)
Hoya lanceolata – India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar
Hoya lanceolata ssp. bella – India, Nepal, S. Myanmar
Hoya lanceolata ssp. lanceolata – Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal
Hoya latifolia – Myanmar, Malaysia, S. Thailand, Indonesia (Borneo, Java, Sumatra)
Hoya limoniaca – New Caledonia
Hoya linearis – China (Yunnan), India (Sikkim), Nepal
Hoya longifolia – Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Singapore, Thailand
Hoya macgillivrayi – Australia (Queensland)
Hoya macrophylla – Indonesia (Borneo, Java)
Hoya magnifica – Papua New Guinea
Hoya megalaster – Papua New Guinea
Hoya meliflua – Philippines
Hoya meredithii – Malaysia (Borneo)
Hoya mindorensis – Philippines
Hoya multiflora – China, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam
Hoya nicholsoniae – Australia (Queensland), Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands
Hoya nummularioides – Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam
Hoya obovata – India, Indonesia, Thailand, Fiji
Hoya obscura – Philippines
Hoya pachyclada – Thailand
Hoya parviflora – India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Indonesia, Thailand
Hoya parvifolia – Indonesia (Sumatra)
Hoya pauciflora – India (Malabar, Kerala), Sri Lanka
Hoya pottsii – China
Hoya pubicalyx – Philippines
Hoya purpureo-fusca – Indonesia (Java)
Hoya retusa – India (Assam, Bombay Presidency), Indonesia (Sulawesi)
Hoya revoluta – Cambodia, Indonesia (Borneo, Java, Sumatra), Laos, Malaysia (Malacca), S. Thailand, Vietnam
Hoya serpens – Australia (Queensland), India (E. Himalaya), Nepal
Hoya shepherdii – SW. China, India
Hoya siamica – Cambodia, India, Laos, NW. Thailand, Vietnam
Hoya thailandica – Thailand (Chang Mai)
Hoya thomsonii – China (Xizang), India (Assam)
Hoya tsangii – China, Philippines (Mindanao)
Hoya verticillata – Brunei, Cambodia, E. India, Indonesia (Borneo, Java, Sulawesi, Sumatra), Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore
Hoya vitellina – Indonesia (Java)
Cultivation and uses
Many species of Hoya are popular houseplants in temperate areas (especially H. carnosa), grown for their attractive foliage and strongly scented flowers. Numerous cultivars have been selected for different leaf forms or flower colours. Hoyas grow well indoors, preferring bright light, but will tolerate fairly low light levels, although they may not flower without bright light. Hoyas commonly sold in nurseries as houseplants include cultivars of H. carnosa (Krimson Queen, Hindu Rope − compacta), H. pubicalyx (often mislabelled as H. carnosa or H. purpurea-fusca), and H. kerrii. Hoyas are easy to propagate, and are commonly sold as cuttings, either rooted or unrooted, or as a potted plant.
Hoya carnosa has been shown in recent studies at the University of Georgia to be an excellent remover of pollutants in the indoor environment.
Various cultures have used hoyas medicinally, especially Polynesian cultures. Some are toxic to livestock and sheep poisonings in Australia are reported.
Robert Brown (1810). Prodromus florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van-Diemen, exhibens characteres plantarum quas annis 1802-1805 per oras utriusque insulae collegit et descripsit Robertus Brown; insertis passim aliis speciebus auctori hucusque cognitis, seu evulgatis, seu ineditis, praaesertim Banksianis, in primo itinere navarchi Cook detectis 1. London: Richard Taylor and Biodiversity Heritage Library. p. 459.
Albers, F. & Meve, U., eds. (2002), Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Asclepiadaceae, Springer Verlag, ISBN 978-3-540-41964-8
Christopher, J.T. & Holtum, J.A.M. (1996), Patterns of Carbon Partitioning in Leaves of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Species during Deacidification, Plant Physiology 112 (1): 393–399, doi:10.1104/pp.112.1.393
Endress, Mary E. & Bruyns, Peter V. (2000), A revised classification of the Apocynaceae s.l., The Botanical Review 66 (1): 1–56, doi:10.1007/BF02857781
Kloppenburg, Dale & Wayman, Ann (2005), The World of Hoyas : a book of pictures (revised ed.), Central Point, OR: Orca Publishing, ISBN 978-0-9630489-4-3
Liede-Schumann, S. (2006). The Genera of Asclepiadoideae, Secamonoideae and Periplocoideae (Apocynaceae): Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval Version: 21 September 2000.
Phillips, Roger (1997). The Random House Book of Indoor and Greenhouse Plants (Vol. 2). New York: Random House, Incorporated. ISBN 0375750282.
Trimen, Henry (1888). Hortus Zeylanicus; A Classified List of the Plants, Both Native and Exotic, Growing in the Royal Botanic Gardens. P.R. Deniya. ISBN 9781236067777.
Yang, Dong Sik; Pennisi, Svoboda V.; Son, Ki-Cheol & Kays, Stanley J. (2009), Screening Indoor Plants for Volatile Organic Pollutant Removal Efficiency, HortScience 44 (5): 1377–1381, retrieved 2011-11-30
Zachos, Ellen (1997), "Practical Uses of Various Hoya Species"
All Information credits goes to. Wikipedia - Sources
More Information. Check my website :
Exchangeable image file format (Exif)
Flash (off, did not fire)
Location: The Western Ghats are a mountain range that runs almost parallel to the western coast of Indian peninsula. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the eight "hottest hotspots" of biological diversity in the world. It is sometimes called the Great Escarpment of India. The range runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, and separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain, called Konkan, along the Arabian Sea. A total of thirty nine properties including national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests were designated as world heritage sites - twenty in Kerala, ten in Karnataka, five in Tamil Nadu and four in Maharashtra.
The range starts near the border of Gujarat and Maharashtra, south of the Tapti river, and runs approximately 1,600 km (990 mi) through the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala ending at Kanyakumari, at the southern tip of India. These hills cover 160,000 km2 (62,000 sq mi) and form the catchment area for complex riverine drainage systems that drain almost 40% of India. The Western Ghats block southwest monsoon winds from reaching the Deccan Plateau. The average elevation is around 1,200 m (3,900 ft).
The area is one of the world's ten "Hottest biodiversity hotspots" and has over 5000 species of flowering plants, 139 mammal species, 508 bird species, 179 amphibian species and 288 freshwater fish species; it is likely that many undiscovered species live in the Western Ghats. At least 325 globally threatened species occur in the Western Ghats.
Photo Taken By. 2014 -- Photo Taken Time:
Like, if you agree.
Comment, we all learn from each other!
Share, always pass on a great message!
NikosR has marked this note useful
Only registered TrekNature members may rate photo notes.