Barringtonia Racemosa @ Putat
|Copyright: Foozi Saad (foozi)
|Date Taken: 2009-07-18|
|Camera: Canon SX10 IS|
|Exposure: f/5.6, 1/10 seconds|
|Details: Tripod: Yes|
|More Photo Info: [view]|
|Photo Version: Original Version|
|Date Submitted: 2009-08-05 5:33|
|[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note|
|Barringtonia racemosa (L.) Roxb. |
Family : Lecythidaceae
Common names : powderpuff tree ( Eng. ); poeierkwasboom (Afr.); iBhoqo (Zulu)
South African National Tree No. : 524
Again this special species is taken at my small forest.. my unattended small plot of land.
We eat the leaves and young fruits as salad ( a bit bitter). But to break even we mixed it with chillies, dried prawns and boiled fish.
This beautiful mangrove tree is easily recognized by its large leaves, delicate white flowers and guava-like fruit that hang in long racemes.
Barringtonia racemosa has a straight, unbranched stem that leads to a rounded crown and is usually 4-8 m tall, but occasionally reaches 15 m. The bark is greyish brown to pink with white blotches and raised dots and lines. The branches are marked with leaf scars.
The leaves are alternate and carried in clusters at the ends of branches, are 180-320 x 55-145 mm, with petioles 5-12 mm long. The midribs are prominent on the lower side of the leaf and the branching veins are visible on both sides.
The flowers are produced on hanging racemes up to 1 m long. The buds are pinkish red and split open to bring forth masses of delicate stamens in white sprays up to 35 mm wide, which are often tinged with pink. The flowers give off a pungent, putrid yet faintly sweet odour in the morning. The fruit are quadrangular, 65 x 40 mm. Each fruit contains a single seed surrounded by spongy, fibrous flesh that provides the buoyancy that allows the fruit to be carried off with the tide.
Distribution and habitat
Barringtonia racemosa is mainly a coastal species that thrives under very humid, moist conditions. It is common along tropical and subtropical coasts in the Indian Ocean, starting at the east coast of South Africa. It is also common in Mozambique, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Thailand, Laos, southern China, northern Australia, the Ryukyu Islands of Japan and a number of Polynesian islands. It does grow well under dry conditions but it cannot tolerate even mild frost.
Barringtonia racemosa is not threatened in any way.
Derivation of name and historical aspects
The genus Barringtonia contains 56 species and is named after Daines Barrington, an 18th century botanist, jurist and antiquary. The specific name racemosa refers to the long racemes on which the flowers and fruit are borne. B. racemosa is the only indigenous species of this genus occurring in South Africa. Two Asian species exist in cultivation in the Durban Botanic Gardens- B. asiatica and B. acutangula.
Barringtonia racemosa can tolerate salt water and therefore thrives under coastal and estaurine conditions. It also grows well under dry conditions where frost does not occur. The chief dispersal agent for the buoyant seeds is the tide. Although there are no records of animals eating the fruit, the presence of the trees up to 1 000 m above sea level points to an as yet unknown animal as a dispersal agent. It flowers twice a year: in spring and again from January to April. The strong scent produced by the flowers at night attract moths and nectar-feeding bats. After the flowers (petals and stamens) are shed, the inflorescences are often crowded with ants that are attracted to the nectar. It is the larval food plant for the butterfly Coeliades keithloa.
Uses and cultural aspects
The seeds, bark, wood and roots contain the poison saponin and is used to stun fish. The bark, which also has a high tannin content, is frequently used in powdered form for this purpose. Extracts from the plant are effective insectides and are also used medicinally in the East; in South Africa the Zulus use the fruit to treat malaria. In Bengal the seeds are used to poison people and coconut is said to be the antidote. The young leaves are edible and the bark is often used for cordage.
Growing Barringtonia racemosa
It grows rapidly from the seed or cuttings that are pushed into the ground. The typical substrate on which it grows is the black mud on the banks of the estuaries on South Africa 's east coast.
Split the hard outer covering of the fruit to expose the seed which is about the size of a small chicken egg. Usually a large proportion of the fruits are seedless. Place the seed in a 1:1 mixture of sand and compost kept in a warm, well-ventilated area receiving a lot of light. The seeds generally germinate in 10 to 14 days, depending upon the heat. The seedlings can be planted out into large containers or into the open ground in their second season of growth.
When growing it in a garden (or relatively dry conditions), it is best to water it regularly during the establishment phase and during winter, otherwise the plant is likely to die. In Durban and Sri Lanka the weather is such that it is used as a roadside tree. Generally B. racemosa cannot tolerate even mild frost, however, it has been grown successfully in the Highveld when kept in a greenhouse under permanently well-watered and very humid conditions.
The very large, spear-shaped leaves provide plenty of shade and any plants grown in close proximity to the tree should be shade plants that can tolerate very moist soils. It is well suited for small gardens because the horizontal branching of B. racemosa makes the canopy easy to prune to the required size. B. racemosa is deciduous, dropping its leaves for a short time in early summer before the first rains on the east coast of KwaZulu-Natal.
The wood is susceptible to sap-stain and being attacked by termites and marine borer; the sapwood is prone to attack by Lyctus borers.
References and further reading
Beentje, H.J. 1994. Kenya trees, shrubs and lianas. National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi.
Chantaranothai, P. 1995. Barringtonia (Lecythidaceae) in Thailand. Kew Bulletin 50: 677-694.
Coates Palgrave, M. 2002. Keith Coates Palgarve Trees of southern Africa, edn 3. Struik, Cape Town.
Nichols, G. 2001. A pretty tough survivor. The Farmer's Weekly 20 April: 63.
Palmer, E. & Pitman, N. 1972. Trees of southern Africa covering all known indigenous species in the Republic of South Africa, South-West Africa, Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland, vol. 3. Balkema, Cape Town.
Pooley, E. 2003. The complete field guide to trees of Natal, Zululand and Transkei, edn 4. Natal Flora Publications Trust, Durban.
Strey, R.G. 1976. Barringtonia racemosa. The Flowering Plants of Africa 43: t. 1706.
Van Wyk, A.E. (Braam) & Van Wyk, P. 1997. Field guide to the trees of southern Africa. Struik, Cape Town.
Internet 12-11-2007: World Agroforestry Centre, Agroforestree Database: http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/af/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=307.
nagraj, nazirbadar, mamcg, boreocypriensis, Dis. Ac., maurydv, Pitoncle, goldyrs, Miss_Piggy, pierrefonds, Hormon_Manyer has marked this note useful
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- [2009-08-05 5:51]
Very strange looking flower with fine colors and shapes which you captured well, wish there were some fruits to see here. Good information about this species. tfs.
Lovely macro capture of this interesting flower!
The sharpness and POV are nicely chosen with good DOF. I like the dark BG which gives a great contrast to this bright flower. The colors of the flower are adorable. well framed!
thanks and regards,
- [2009-08-05 9:54]
Beautiful and good NOTE as information about, hope that I too have found a clue to this flower and next upload may be.
Great shot well composed.
Regards , TFS.
Just reading the first few lines of your note made me hungry again. I would love to try the leaves and fruits in a salad right now. The presentation is again very artful with your special attention to color and contrast. I like that you captured the flowers in different stages.
- [2009-08-05 10:50]
Hi Foozi,impressive close-up of this rare specie,another time the colors are warms and perfects and the sharpness too at the top.I like a lot this point of view!My best compliments,have a nice day,Luciano
Hi MF Foozi, another splendid flower and its perfect capture with great clarity and fine composition.
TFS and cheers,
great colored composition with good details
Very different flower it is. You have captured it nicely with great focus and OOF bg. Very well done
another fantastic picture of a flower, marvellous contrast of the vivid colours of the pink powderpuff tree againg a dark BG, superb sharpness in a very nice composition.
Très belle publication avec cette superbe macro remaquable de précision avec une très bonne opposition sur l'arrière plan.
A bientôt sur TN pour de nouvelles aventures.
A lovely note to accompany this superb shot, Foozi!
Very well done!
A most enjoyable and colourful sight. The rich and vibrant colours of flower is stunning. Good focus and sharp details. A pleasant image that have an almost artistic appearance. Very pleasing to the eye. Thanks for sharing.
The blurred background is putting in evidence the flowers. The close-up view is showing the details and colors Barringtonia racemosa flowers. The subject is well framed. The light has a good effect on the colors. Have a nice day.
Hi again MF,
Another shot of You which I like so much. Great macro, flowers and petals are sharp, background's blurred nicely. Nice job MF, tfs.
Please, if possible, correct the title of Your last fungal image. I said it must be Coprinopsis lagopus or a closed relative - Coprinopsis atramentaria is quite different (click here to see the difference). Thanks in advance.
Best wishes, László