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The Red-vented Bulbul

The Red-vented Bulbul
Photo Information
Copyright: Zahoor Ahmed (zahoor_salmi) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 108 W: 0 N: 618] (5538)
Genre: Animals
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2010-05-22
Categories: Birds
Camera: Canon 40D, 400f5.6 L
Exposure: f/5.6, 1/400 seconds
Details: Tripod: Yes
More Photo Info: [view]
Photo Version: Original Version
Date Submitted: 2010-05-29 9:42
Viewed: 2625
Points: 6
[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note
The Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) is a member of the bulbul family of passerine birds. It is resident breeder in tropical southern Asia from India and Sri Lanka east to Burma and southwestern China. It has been introduced and has established itself in the wild in many Pacific islands including Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, and Hawaii. It has also established itself in parts of Dubai, the United Arab Emirates and New Zealand. It is included among the world's worst invasive alien species.[2]
The Red-vented Bulbul was originally described by Linnaeus in 1766. Several populations of this widespread species have been named as subspecies (or races). The nominate race is found in southern India.[3] The type locality of Pondicherry was designated by Erwin Stresemann.[4] The race in the western part is intermedius and is found in Kashmir and Kohat down to the Salt Range and along the Himalayas to Kumaon. The race bengalensis is found in the Himalayas from Nepal east to Assam. South of these two forms are pallidus to the west south to Ahmednagar and saturatus along the east, south to the Godavari. There are no distinct boundaries to these racial forms and recent works do not recognize pallidus and saturatus (designated by Whistler & Kinnear, 1932 for the northeastern Peninsular India) but accept the desert form humayuni from Sindh and northwestern India, northeast Indian stanfordii (=stanfordi Deignan, 1949) and the Sri Lankan race haemorrhous (=haemorrhousus (J. F. Gmelin, 1789) ).[5] Race melanchimus is found in Southern Burma and northern Thailand.[6]

Race chrysorrhoides is found in China. Two formerly designated races nigropileus in Southern Burma and burmanicus of Northern Burma are considered as hybrids.[6][7][8]
The Red-vented Bulbul is easily identified by its short crest giving the head a squarish appearance. The body is dark brown with a scaly pattern while the head is darker or black. The rump is white while the vent is red. The black tail is tipped in white. The Himalayan races have a more prominent crest and are more streaked on the underside. The Race intermedius of the Western Himalayas has a black hood extending to the mid-breast. Race bengalensis of Central and Eastern Himalayas and the Gangetic plain has dark hood without scales with dark streaks on the lower belly. Race stanfordi of the South Assam hills is similar to intermedius. The desert race humayuni has a paler brown mantle. The nominate race cafer is found in Peninsular India. Northeast Indian race wetmorei is between cafer, humayuni and bengalensis. about 20 cm in length, with a long tail. Sri Lankan race haemorrhous (=haemorrhousus[6]) has a dark mantle with narrow pale edges. Race humayuni is known to hybridize with Pycnonotus leucogenys and these hybrids have been named by the race magrathi which have pale rumps and yellow-orange or pink vents.[9] In Eastern Myanmar there is hybridization with Pycnonotus aurigaster.[5]

P. c. cafer (Ernakulam, India)Sexes are similar in plumage, but young birds are duller than adults.[5] The typical call has been transcribed as ginger beer but a number of pit like single note calls are also produced. Their alarm calls are usually responded to by many other species of bird.[10]

Melanistic as well as albinistic individuals have been noted.[11][12][13][14]

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Salam Aley kum, Zahoor.
Highly educative note.
Excellent clarity.
Mario from very very COLD Calgary... Canada with friendly greetings.

hello Zahoor
super composition with great details nice light and beautiful colours
very good sharpness
greeting lou

amazing capture, TFS Ori

superb shot , nice pov and beauitful colors

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