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(Phylloscopus borealis) 极北柳莺
Size: 12 cm - C/WV/PM - Wooded areas
A small bird, the Arctic Warbler has a relatively large-headed and long-winged, with long first feathers on their wings (primary projections). Distinctive long, pale-yellow eyebrows extend beyond the eyes and curve upward. They also are distinguished from other similar-looking birds (Orange-crowned and Tennessee Warblers) by their straw-colored legs and feet. Their olive tail is short and square. Sides, flanks, upperparts and wings are olive to olive-brown, and offset by the whitish-yellow breast and belly. A single, pale wing bar highlights the tips of the greater coverts.
Arctic Warblers rapidly trill a mechanical series of 8-10 "chrchrchrchrchrchrchrchrchr" or "chinginginginginging" notes. Their call is a short, penetrating and buzzy "jeet" or "dzrk," much like that of the American Dipper.
During migration, it can be found mainly in the lowlands, in all kinds of woodlands, from primary rainforest to mangroves and even parks and gardens with large trees. It moves high in the thin branches, picking off tiny insects. It must be the most abundant breeding bird in Siberian land, judging from large numbers that visits South-East Asia during peak migration. Female Arctic Warblers build oven nests on grassy tundra or on the ground among willow thickets. The nests are dome-shaped with a hole in one side and are loosely constructed of fine grasses, leaves, and mosses. Lined with fine grasses and hair, these nests are soft shelters for the 5-7, 16mm eggs of the clutch.
Eggs are white and spotted or occasionally encircled (wreathed) in pink or reddish-brown. Little is known about the breeding biology of this species. It is thought that the female incubates the clutch and that the offspring fledge in 10-11 days post-hatching. After hatching, it is believed that both parents rear the young.
Insects, especially mosquitoes, compose the majority of the Arctic Warbler's diet. They hunt by hovering and gleaning insects from foliage, branches and ground plants.
Common winter visitor throughout Singapore.
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