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The sculptures of nature #3#

The sculptures of nature #3#
Photo Information
Copyright: Adrian Rusu (roges) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 957 W: 0 N: 1329] (6264)
Genre: Landscapes
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2009-10-25
Categories: Mountain
Exposure: f/3.5, 1/5 seconds
More Photo Info: [view]
Photo Version: Original Version
Theme(s): Geological Wonders [view contributor(s)]
Date Submitted: 2009-10-31 1:43
Viewed: 4987
Points: 85
[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note
Dear colleagues, today I present a different picture of Punkva Cave. I like very much this picture. I hope you will like you too.
It is amazing how nature can also play works of art after thousands of years.
I decided to predict a short presentation stalctite and stalagmite.
I wish you all a pleasant weekend.
Best regards,

A stalactite (from the Greek stalasso, "to drip" and meaning "that which drips") is a type of speleothem (secondary mineral) that hangs from the ceiling or wall of limestone caves. It is a type of dripstone.

Formation and type:
Stalactites are formed by the deposition of calcium carbonate and other minerals, which is precipitated from mineralized water solutions. Limestone is calcium carbonate rock which is dissolved by water that contains carbon dioxide, forming a calcium bicarbonate solution. The chemical formula for this reaction is:

CaCO3(s) + H2O(l) + CO2(aq) → Ca(HCO3)2(aq)

This solution travels through the rock until it reaches an edge and if this is on the roof of a cave it will drip down. When the solution comes into contact with air the chemical reaction that created it is reversed and particles of calcium carbonate are deposited. The reversed reaction is:

Ca(HCO3)2(aq) → CaCO3(s) + H2O(l) + CO2(aq)

An average growth rate is 0.13 mm (0.005 inches) a year. The quickest growing stalactites are those formed by fast-flowing water rich in calcium carbonate and carbon dioxide, these can grow at 3 mm (0.12 inches) per year.

Every stalactite begins with a single mineral-laden drop of water. When the drop falls, it leaves behind the thinnest ring of calcite. Each subsequent drop that forms and falls deposits another calcite ring. Eventually, these rings form a very narrow (0.5 mm), hollow tube commonly known as a "soda straw" stalactite. Soda straws can grow quite long, but are very fragile. If they become plugged by debris, water begins flowing over the outside, depositing more calcite and creating the more familiar cone-shaped stalactite. The same water drops that fall from the tip of a stalactite deposit more calcite on the floor below, eventually resulting in a rounded or cone-shaped stalagmite. Unlike stalactites, stalagmites never start out as hollow "soda straws." Given enough time, these formations can meet and fuse to create columns.

Stalactites can also form in lava tubes, although the mechanism of formation is much different.

The White Chamber in the Jeita Grotto's upper cavern in Lebanon holds an 8.2 meters stalactite which is also accessible to visitors and is claimed to be the longest stalactite in the world. While it has been claimed that the longest stalactite known hangs in the Chamber of Rarities in the Gruta Rei do Mato (Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil) and is 20 metres long, vertical cavers have often encountered longer stalactites while exploring. One of the longest stalactites viewable by the general public is in Doolin Cave, County Clare, Ireland, in a karst region known as The Burren, what makes it more impressive is the fact that the stalactite is held on by a section of calcite less than 0.3 square meters.

A stalagmite (from the Greek stalagma ("Σταλαγμίτης"), "drop" or "drip") is a type of speleothem that rises from the floor of a limestone cave due to the dripping of mineralized solutions and the deposition of calcium carbonate. The corresponding formation on the ceiling of a cave is known as a stalactite. If these formations grow together, the result is known as a column.

When touring caves with stalactites and stalagmites you might be requested to not touch the rock formations. This is generally because the formation is considered to still be growing and forming. Since the rock buildup is formed by minerals solidifying out of the water solution onto the old surface, skin oils can disturb where the mineral water will cling, thus affecting the growth of the formation. Oils and dirt from the hands can also stain the formation and change its colour permanently.

Similar structures can also form in lava tubes, known as lavacicles, although the mechanism of formation is very different. Stalactites and stalagmites can also form on concrete ceilings and floors, although they form much more rapidly there than in the natural cave environment.

Stalagtites and stalagmites are similar to travertine in the way they form and in their composition, but there are differences.

The largest stalagmite in the world is 62.2 metres (220 feet) high and is located in the cave of Cueva San Martin Infierno, Cuba.

Mikolaj, uleko, goldyrs, Alex99, Juyona, goatman04, marius-secan, siggi, maurydv, boreocypriensis, Argus, anel, nglen, Noisette, MMM, CeltickRanger, oscarromulus, chudy, tuslaw, SelenE, Hormon_Manyer, Aramok, jaycee, cicindela has marked this note useful
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Critiques [Translate]

Hello Adrian! Amazing shot, good capture and exposure, very good contrast and sharpness. Wonderful lightness. Good take. Very interesting info. Well done!

  • Great 
  • horias Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 837 W: 58 N: 2084] (11033)
  • [2009-10-31 2:10]

Intradevar, imaginea de azi este excelenta!
Reflexia este perfecta!
In plus, azi esti un renumit profesor de speologie, cu nota asta ata de complecta!

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  • PeterZ Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 5137 W: 166 N: 13121] (49139)
  • [2009-10-31 2:29]

Hello Adrian,
Indeed a very beautiful photo in this light. The stalctite and stalagmite are gorgeous. The reflection in the water is also very beautiful. Good sharpness, DOF and composition.
Have a good weekend,

Excelente documento el que nos presentas Adrian, sconociendo de la dificultad de este tipo de fotografías. Destacaría sin duda la buena captura del primer plano y sus reflejos.
Saludos y buen fin de semana: J. Ignasi.

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  • uleko Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 3396 W: 172 N: 3310] (10940)
  • [2009-10-31 2:57]

Hello Adrian,
A magic view from this beautiful cave taken from a nice POV! Beautiful colours and details and lovely reflections in the still water.
TFS and regards, Ulla

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  • Alex99 Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 4072 W: 133 N: 7096] (23735)
  • [2009-10-31 6:10]

Hi Adrian.
What a fairy-tale place and impressive picture. Superb lights and shadows, great shapes of the stalactites. POV and sharpness of the image are spot on. Bravo. Very impressive work.

Ciao Adrian. Another fascinating internal taken with perfect managemente of light. Amazing reflections an detailed perspctive.


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  • Juyona Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor [C: 2232 W: 10 N: 2971] (16891)
  • [2009-10-31 7:20]

sorprendente trabajo amigo,
finos reflejos y detalles,
atractiva composición.
saludos Adrian.

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  • zetu Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 967 W: 26 N: 3888] (16941)
  • [2009-10-31 8:04]

Salut Adrian
Foarte frumoase imaginele pe care le-ai surprins. Mai asteptam si altele.
Week-and placut

Hello Adrian,

A beautiful capture with great colors, sharpness & details. Very nicely taken & TFS.



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  • siggi Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 3097 W: 109 N: 12399] (52850)
  • [2009-10-31 11:27]

Hello Adrian,
Outstanding shot of these stalactite and stalagmites and the formation looks so amazing. The lighting is very good and gives it that rich colour. Best regards Siggi

Ciao Adrian, fantastic reflections inm a wonderful cawern, superb exposure, splendid light, very well done, have a good week end, ciao Silvio

Ciao Adrian,
continua la tua esplorazione fotografica di queste bellissime grotte, fantastico il riflesso sull'acqua.
Grazie e complimenti
Buona domenica
Ciao Maurizio

Hi Adrian

Good shot of this cave system, they are always interesting to visit. Good composition.


Hi Adrian,

An impressive capture of the cave with interesting geochemical structures!
I like the sharpness and POV here with great show of natural colors. Great play between light and shadows. Great note indeed!

Very well done!

best regards,

Hi and Good Morning Adrian,

Another great addition of this series. Great notes too.
TFS and have a nice Sunday!


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  • lousat Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 6595 W: 89 N: 15659] (65489)
  • [2009-11-01 2:07]

Hi Adrian,another very difficult pic from the underground,and another beautiful result.Excellent sharpness and colors and magic reflections inside the water,you work very very well,i know how are difficults pics like that! Thanks for share,have a nice Sunday,LUCIANO

Hello Adrian,

The lighting is amazing, obviously they gave some attention to this fine set-up!
All to the benefit of photographers visiting...
Colours and details are well reproduced, a well composed scene!

Pablo -

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  • Argus Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 5038 W: 260 N: 15594] (50626)
  • [2009-11-01 3:41]

Hello Adrian,
A fine capture of the natural limestone formations in this cave taken in a pleasing composition that makes us almost feel that we are there too!
Thanks and all the best,

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  • anel Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 3053 W: 3 N: 8715] (40574)
  • [2009-11-01 4:43]

Lieber Adrian,
Ja uns gefällt dieses Bild auch sehr! Da hast Du ja etwas Wunderbares gesehen, so schön wie sich die Stalagmiten und Stalaktiten im Wasser widerspiegeln. Nicht leicht ein solches Bild zu machen. Hast Du ein Stativ gebraucht?
Ich wünsche einen schönen Sonntag und herzliche Grüsse auch an Christina

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  • danar Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Note Writer [C: 57 W: 0 N: 17] (273)
  • [2009-11-01 7:40]

Hello Adrian.

SUPERBA IMAGINE !!!! felicitari fotografului !!!
Un adevarat miracol al naturii.

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  • nglen Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 2883 W: 30 N: 9683] (36145)
  • [2009-11-01 12:37]

Hi Adrian. This looks so wonderful. So many shapes and colours all refecting in the water. I love the warm lighting. All with such interesting notes. well taken TFS.

hallo Adrian
das ist ein wirklich interessantes Bild von dieser Grotte, ya, die Natur ist wunderbar, und dieses Photo zeigt uns eine ihrer schönste Seite
beeindruckende landschaft mit gutem Licht und Reflektion im Wasser
Grüsse aus Frankreich

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  • MMM Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 1114 W: 0 N: 2546] (11425)
  • [2009-11-01 18:38]

Hello Adrian
Good capture of that site.Nice POV with excellent light control.Extremely interesting text.
TFS Michel

hello Adrian

my French being better i will start in French,
une superbe photo de ces sculpture de nature sous-terraine,
shot with fine POV & DOF, fine focus excellent sharpness
and details, excellent luminosity, TFS


Witaj Adrian,
Ta jaskinia wyglada jak rozwarty pysk krokodyla. Robi wrazenie.Boje sie jaskin.

Hello Adrian
Belle ambiance, avec cette douce lumière, une netteté impeccable
Merci Amicalement

I loved you HIGHLY educative notes.
Inspite of the very poor light you have performed a miracle to bring this image to the world. Congratulations.
BRAVO a thousand times BRAVO.

HI Adrian,
das ist ein wundervolles Bild.
Ich mag die Reflektion im Wasser so sehr.
Außerdem ist das Licht so schön warm.
Ein ganz besonderer Platz, diese Höhle würde ich auch sehr gerne mal mit eigenen Augen sehen.
Lieben Dank und Gruß
Sabine - wishnugaruda

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  • chudy Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 130 W: 0 N: 176] (899)
  • [2009-11-04 14:18]

Hi Adrian!
Fine taking the cave with stalagmites and stalactites I was never in such a cave.
I am greeting Slawek

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  • foozi Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 2791 W: 0 N: 6696] (25839)
  • [2009-11-05 5:15]

Hi Adrian,
lovely capture of natral cave. The reflection is very pretty and you have presented it so well. Excellent balance of light and this result in a very lovely composition.
Well done.


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  • tuslaw Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 2754 W: 282 N: 4931] (19883)
  • [2009-11-05 18:48]

Hello Adrian,
I particularly like this image as it shows the reflection of the beautiful formations with wonderful detail and gorgeous colors. The lighting is very natural looking and the composition of the shot was perfectly chosen.
I have been to many caves and caverns throughout the US. and this particular one seems to have some wonderful formations as shown by your fine photos.

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  • SelenE Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 2249 W: 65 N: 4205] (13972)
  • [2009-11-11 6:08]

Hi Adrian,
It's a beautiful scenery. You handled the exposure very well. I love the reflections, details and the composition.

Hi Adrian,
Although I'm mostly into fungi, I like this kind of in-cave shots very much, they're so nice and special. This one's perfect with great lights, fantastic reflection on the water, and what's the most difficult in caves (without tripod), no blur at all.
Congratulations for this awesome shot MF, and of course tfs.
Best wishes from Hungary, László

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  • Aramok Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 896 W: 101 N: 1501] (5166)
  • [2009-11-16 11:44]

hi Adrain

what an wonderful shot in of this amazing cave. you have caught it really well. the light and sharpness is stunning.


Hellow Adrian,
Great in depth and educational info provided.First class exposure creating a brilliant mirror image picture.Good detail showing interesting and natural shapes. These are not always easy scenes to photograph, although you have done a great work of art, well done and TFS.

Hi Adrian,
I think it's not that easy to find a good composition with so many wonderful shapes all around you and to get propper exposure with such different in lighting. You both nailed them here with a wonderful mirror like reflection and a well balanced composition. The artificial lighting was well controlled and gave you some nice focal points. It does show that mother nature can create some wonderful art.

Hi Adrian,

this is a lovely view of the cavern. Superb shot with nice PoV and good exposure. Its realy the wonder of teh earth.


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  • jaycee Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 2454 W: 10 N: 8044] (25460)
  • [2009-12-12 16:00]

Hi Adrian,

What a magnificent series of pictures you have presented from the Punka Cave. I have seen many but never anything has glorious as this. The colors and details are wonderful - the reflections are fantastic. This is a group of photos to be proud of and thank you for sharing them.


Wonderful capture of "hiden treasures" :> I like a lot panoramic view of this picture. It is not easy to take a good photo in a cave. Final effect is very good, really prefessional work.
All the best for you and your family in 2010!

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  • deud Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 438 W: 11 N: 534] (2540)
  • [2010-01-10 11:09]

super. am avut si eu o ocazie in viata mea sa vizitez doua pestere in Crimea, Ucraina. una orizontala, si una verticala.
e ceva uimitor! scene extraterestre!


Hello Adrian
Magnificent reflection!
Wonderful,mysterious cave !
Great note ,very interesting and useful !

very interesting and great job!
just to draw yr attention that Gruta do Rei do Mato (brazil) is home to the largest world 'column', not stalactite.. is it possible to correct? thanks

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