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Pieris brassicae


Pieris brassicae
Photo Information
Copyright: Luciano Gollini (lousat) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 6595 W: 89 N: 15659] (65489)
Genre: Animals
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2015-09-29
Categories: Insects
Camera: Sony Cybershot DSC HX200V
Exposure: f/5.0, 1/1000 seconds
More Photo Info: [view]
Photo Version: Original Version
Date Submitted: 2015-10-26 16:02
Viewed: 1536
Points: 24
[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note
Class: Insecta

Order: Lepidoptera

Superfamily: Papilionoidea

Family: Pieridae

Subfamily: Pierinae

Tribe: Pierini

Genus: Pieris

Species: P. brassicae

The Large White or Cabbage White (Pieris brassicae) is a butterfly in the family Pieridae. The butterfly is called the Large Cabbage White in India.The Large White is common throughout Europe, North Africa and Asia to the Himalayas often in agricultural areas, meadows and parkland. It is a strong flyer and the British population is reinforced in most years by migrations from the continent. Scattered reports of the Large White from the northeastern United States (New York, Rhode Island and Maine) over the past century are of a dubious nature and indicate either accidental transport or intentional release. Such introductions threaten to establish this agricultural pest in North America.
The wings are white, with black tips on the forewings of both males and females, the female also has two black spots on each forewing. The underside is a pale greenish and serves as excellent camouflage when at rest. The black markings are generally darker in the summer brood. Its wingspan is 5 to 6.5 cm.The female lays batches of 20 to 100 yellow eggs on plants in the cabbage family and can be a pest on food crops. They seem to have a preference for cultivated varieties of Brassica oleracea such as cabbage and brussel sprouts. The caterpillars are yellowish green with yellow lines and black spots and feed in groups in plain view on the leaf surface. They gain protection from predators by obtaining distastful mustard oils from their foodplants although large numbers are sometimes lost to the parasitic wasp Apanteles glomeratus. The chrysalis is also yellowish green with black spots. The species over-winters as a chrysalis. It has two broods in a year, the first is on the wing in May and June and the second in August.The upperside of the male is creamy white. Fore wing is irrorated with black scales at base and along costa for a short distance; apex and termen above vein 2 more or less broadly black, the inner margin of the black area with a regular even curve; in one or two specimens a small longitudinally narrow black spot in interspace 3. Hind wing : uniform, irrorated with black scales at base, a large black subcostal spot before the apex, and in a few specimens indications of black scaling on the termen anteriorly. Underside, fore wing : white, slightly irrorated with black scales at base of cell and along costa, apex light ochraceous brown; a large black spot in outer half of interspace 1, and another quadrate black spot at base of interspace 3. Hind wing: light ochraceous brown closely irrorated with minute black scales ; the subcostal black spot before the apex shows through from the upperside. Antennae black, white at apex; head, thorax and abdomen black, with some white hairs ; beneath : whitish.
Female upperside similar to that of the male but the irroration of black scales at the bases of the wings more extended; the black area on apex and termen of fore wing broader, its inner margin less evenly curved ; a conspicuous large, black spot in outer half of interspace 1, and another near base of interspace 3. On the hind wing the subcostal black spot before apex much larger, more prominent. Underside: similar to that of the cf but the apex of the fore wing and the whole surface of the hind wing light ochraceous yellow, not ochraceous brown ; the black discal spots on fore wing much larger. Antennae, head, thorax and abdomen as in the male.

La Cavolaia maggiore, Pieris brassicae (LINNAEUS, 1758), è un Lepidottero della famiglia Pieridae.L'area apicale scura, presente sulla parte superiore dell'ala anteriore, è più allungata rispetto a Pieris rapae, raggiungendo almeno la III venatura. Le parti inferiori dell'ala posteriore hanno una tonalità di fondo gialla nella prima generazione, che diventa più pallida nella generazione successiva.
Durante l'estate questi lepidotteri hanno una traccia nera intensa nella parte apicale. Le femmine sono contraddistinte dalla presenza di due macchie nere e da una banda nera sulle ali anteriori.
La sua predilezione per le foglie di cavolo spiega il motivo per cui è stata a lungo considerata un flagello dagli otticoltori. Più di recente ha subito una flessione, tanto da risultare rara in talune regioni.Le uova vengono deposte da aprile a settembre, in gruppi di 50-100, e sono di un colore giallo brillante. Possono essere rinvenute solitamente sulla pagina inferiore delle foglie.Le larve si rivengono tra i mesi di maggio e novembre, in raggruppamenti vicini. I bruchi sono di un colore verde pallido, riccamente punteggiato di macchie nere, con bande gialle lungo il dorso e i fianchi.Le pupe sono succinte e si trovano tutto l'anno su palizzate o su qualsiasi supporto verticale, a volte anche nei giardini. Questa specie passa l'inverno sotto forma di pupa. tratta di una specie paleartica, ben diffusa in tutta la penisola italiana, in Europa continentale e nel bacino del Mediterraneo, Africa Settentrionale compresa. Raggiunge anche i massicci dell'Himalaya. In alcuni casi è migrante (per esempio in Gran Bretagna).
Si può rinvenire in tutte le aree fiorite ed è particolarmente frequente nei giardini, dal livello del mare fino a 2200 m; in Italia può raggiungere i 2300 m di quota.

Noisette, NikosR, josediogo1958, iti has marked this note useful
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ThreadThread Starter Messages Updated
To Noisette: ...lousat 1 10-27 00:51
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Critiques [Translate]

bonsoir Luciano
encore un petit chef-d'oeuvre, les details sont stupefiants, malgré la luminosite, les ailes sont parfaitement photographiées
les couleurs me rapelle les beaux jours d'été
Passe une bonne nuit
Jacqueline

Ciao Luciano, bella grande cavolaia, magnifica luce, ottimi dettagli, splendida nitidezza e bei colori naturali, bravo, ciao Silvio

Beautiful compo and sharp Luciano.

Thanks for sharing.
gr.Yves

  • Great 
  • siggi Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 3097 W: 109 N: 12399] (52850)
  • [2015-10-27 1:46]

Hello Luciano,
Wonderfully clear shot, showing great detail on the wing, head and antennae. Lovely colours, and good framing shows it off nicely. Good work, well done.
Regards Sigi

Ciao Luciano

Despite you post a so usual butterfly you did so interesting composition very attractive to eyes. Excellent clarity and sharpness, very beautiful light management. Very beautiful frame.

Rgds

Nikos

Hello Luciano,

Here is the beauty of diagonal light. I prefer such light which helps to get the details well. Well taken...
Thanks for sharing,
Regards,
Srikumar

  • Great 
  • PeterZ Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 5137 W: 166 N: 13121] (49139)
  • [2015-10-27 7:32]

Hello Luciano,
Beautiful macro of this butterfly. The whole photo is in splendid matching colours. Wonderful sharpness and details.
Regards,
Peter

Ciao Luciano
Great macro of this beauty with fantastic management to get this lighting highlighting the super sharp face and smoothing the wings make it beautiful.The composition is perfect.Very professional approach as usual my Friend.
Have a good day and thanks.
Ciao
José Diogo

hallo Luciano
great sharpness nice light and beautiful colours
i like your picture's
thanks gr lou

  • Great 
  • KOMSIS Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 820 W: 0 N: 2419] (10674)
  • [2015-10-29 9:22]

Ciao Luciano,
In the shade ..
Lovely capture with a very good focus, sharpness, colors, details and composition.
Best wishes,
Seyfi

  • Great 
  • iti Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 577 W: 0 N: 650] (7939)
  • [2015-10-30 9:45]

Hi Luciano,
excellent detail and perfectly sharp photo in nice colours.
Regards Jiri.

Hello Friend,
Excellent capture.

Biswarup

  • Great 
  • Nilson Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 488 W: 0 N: 566] (4423)
  • [2015-11-02 16:30]

Grandiosa foto de qualidade muito boa com cores e nitidez agradável meus parabéns.
Nilson

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