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Pararge aegeria


Pararge aegeria
Photo Information
Copyright: Luciano Gollini (lousat) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 6515 W: 89 N: 15622] (65349)
Genre: Animals
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2018-07-13
Categories: Insects
Camera: Sony Cybershot DSC HX200V
Exposure: f/4.5, 1/640 seconds
More Photo Info: [view]
Map: [view]
Photo Version: Original Version
Date Submitted: 2018-07-18 8:26
Viewed: 429
Points: 10
[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note
Class: Insecta

Order: Lepidoptera

(unranked): Rhopalocera

Superfamily: Papilionoidea

Family: Nymphalidae

Subfamily: Satyrinae

Tribe: Elymniini

Subtribe: Parargina

Genus: Pararge

Species: P. aegeria

The Speckled Wood (Pararge aegeria) is a butterfly found in and on the borders of woodland throughout much of Europe. In Northern and Eastern Europe where subspecies P. a. tircis occurs it is brown with pale yellow or cream spots and darker upperwing eyespots. In southwestern Europe the subspecies P. a. aegeria has a colour which is more orange in the background; the hindwing underside eyespots are reddish brown rather than black or dark gray. The two forms gradually intergrade into each other. The speckled wood also occurs in North Africa and on the Atlantic island of Madeira. Molecular studies suggest that the African and Madeiran populations are closely related and distinct from European populations of both subspecies, suggesting that Madeira was colonized from Africa and that the African population has a long history of isolation from European populations.Females have brighter and more distinct markings than males. The wingspan of both males and females is 4-4.5 cm, although males tend to be slightly smaller than females. Males are highly territorial and will defend their territory against intruding males. For finding females, there exist 2 basic strategies: Some males will vigorously defend a perch and the immediate surroundings, waiting for females to pass by. Others will patrol a larger territory.Males have either 3 or 4 upper hindwing eyespots. The fourth spot shows only in flight. It appears that the 4-spotted morph tends towards patrolling behaviour to finds mates. This agrees with the probable function of the eyespots to entice predators like birds to aim for the wing margin (which may be damaged without much affecting the butterfly) rather than the body. On the other hand, habitat is apparently a major factor influencing mate-finding strategy: perching behavior is more common in males of conifer woodland, whereas males of meadows tend towards patrolling behavior.
The caterpillar is green with a short, forked tail and feeds on various species of grass including Yorkshire Fog. The chrysalis (pupa) is green or dark brown. The species is unique in its ability to overwinter in two totally separated developmental stages, as pupae or as half-grown larvae. This leads to a complicated pattern of several adult flights per year.

PARARGE AEGERIA
Descrizione
Satiro di media grandezza (apertura alare 40-50 mm), con colore di fondo giallo-arancio e disegni scuri a scacchiera. Superiormente, le ali anteriori presentano un piccolo ocello apicale, le posteriori tre ocelli forniti di pupilla. Le parti inferiori hanno disegni confusi su di un fondo giallo-verdastro. Sessi simili, a parte la vistosa macchia androconiale dei maschi.

Biologia
Sverna allo stadio larvale (talvolta anche come pupa) e da marzo inizia una serie di generazioni che si protraggono fino ad ottobre. Il bruco è verde-giallastro con una banda medio-dorsale verde-scura e due appendici anali bianche; sue piante nutrici sono Graminacee di vario genere (Agropyron, Dactylis, Poa, Triticum ecc.). Le crisalidi sono di tipo sospeso.
Distribuzione ed ecologia
Il suo areale si estende dall'Europa all'Asia centrale; presente anche in Nordafrica ed Asia Minore. In Europa è diffusa ovunque, tranne Scandinavia settentrionale, ed è in espansione nelle isole britanniche. Specie comune nel comprensorio, particolarmente legata ad ambienti ombrosi o umidi, come prati prospicienti a bacini lacustri.

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Critiques [Translate]

very nice picture Luciano
good details and beautiful colours
gr lou

Ciao di nuovo Luciano, aspetta sabato sera e vedrai un po' di roba nuova, bella la parare, ottimi dettagli, splendida nitidezza e magnifici colori , bravissimo, saĺuti da Pia del Lupo, ciao Silvio

  • Great 
  • mamcg Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 332 W: 12 N: 90] (9702)
  • [2018-07-19 10:24]

A detailed NOTE brings the charm of this beauty, the flash has enlightened all the aspects, well shot.

Hi Lousat,

the species that you present here may be dull-brownish but since the sunlight comes from the right side it lightens up the wings - traraah - a beauty. Your expertise shows.
Best regards, Dietrich

Bonjour Luciano,

Les feuilles cadrent bien l'insecte. La prise de vue permet de voir les détails du papillon Tircis. L'image est claire et nette. La lumière met en valeur les couleurs de l'image. Bonne journée.

Pierre

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