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Russula xerampelina


Russula xerampelina
Photo Information
Copyright: Jose Conceicao (jconceicao) Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 369 W: 18 N: 842] (3174)
Genre: Fungi
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2009-12-05
Categories: Fungi
Camera: Canon 400 D, 18-55 Canon EFS, Hama UV 58 mm
Exposure: f/11, 1/4 seconds
Details: Tripod: Yes
More Photo Info: [view]
Photo Version: Original Version
Date Submitted: 2009-12-05 7:44
Viewed: 5729
Points: 24
[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note
Russula xerampelina

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Russula xerampelina, also commonly known as the crab brittlegill or the shrimp mushroom, is a basidiomycete mushroom of the brittlegill genus Russula. Two subspecies are recognised. The fruiting bodies appear in coniferous woodlands in autumn in northern Europe and North America. Their caps are coloured various shades of wine-red, purple to green. Mild tasting and edible, it is one of the most highly regarded brittlegills for the table. It is also notable for smelling of shellfish or crab when fresh.

Taxonomy

Russula xerampelina was originally described in 1770 as Agaricus xerampelina from a collection in Bavaria by the German mycologist Jacob Christian Schaeffer, who noted the colour as fusco-purpureus or "purple-brown". It was later given its present binomial name by Swedish mycologist Elias Magnus Fries. Its specific epithet is taken from the Ancient Greek meaning "colour of dried vine leaves", xeros meaning "dry", and ampělinos or "of the vine".[1][2]
Two subspecies have been recognised, var. xerampelina and var. tenuicarnosa, with thinner flesh in the cap and the stipe. The name R. erythropoda is now considered a synonym, and former subspecies R. (xerampelina subsp.) amoenipes (originally named by Henri Romagnesi) now a separate species. A former variety with a greenish cap, R. xerampelina var. elaeodes, is now classified as R. clavipes.
As the first defined species, it gives its name to the section Xerampelinae, a group of related species within the genus Russula, occasionally all termed R. xerampelina in the past. Common names include shrimp mushroom, shrimp Russula, crab brittlegill, and shellfish-scented Russula.

Description

Russula xerampelina has a characteristic odour of boiled crustacean. The cap is 6–12 cm (2.4–5 in) wide, domed, flat, or with a slightly depressed centre, and sticky. The colour is variable, most commonly purple to wine-red, or greenish, and darker towards the centre of the cap. There are fine grooves up to a centimetre long running perpendicular to the margin. The gills have a mild to rather bitter taste, narrowly spaced, and turn creamy-yellow on ageing specimens. The spore print is creamy-yellow to ochre. The oval spores measure 8.8–9.9 by 6.7–7.8 µm and are covered with 1 µm spines, The stipe 4–8 cm (1.6–3.2 in) long, 1.5–3 cm (0.6–1.2 in) wide, is cylindrical, white or sometimes with a reddish blush, turning ochre or brownish with age.
This Russula has been divided into several similar species by some mycologists. However, they all have the singular; dark green colour reaction to iron salts (iron(II) sulfate) when applied to the flesh, and all smell of shellfish. This aroma is quite distinct, and becomes stronger with age.
More reddish-capped forms could be confused with the sickener (Russula emetica), although the latter always has a white stipe and gills; greener-capped species may resemble the also edible Russula aeruginea.

Distribution and habitat

Russula xerampelina is widely distributed; quite common in northern temperate zones, and often ranging into the Arctic Circle, it also ranges south to Costa Rica. Appearing in the autumn, it grows solitary, or in groups with conifers, and seems to have a preference for Douglas Fir, or more rarely pine trees or larch. It is sometimes found in deciduous woods, such as beech and oak.
Variety tenuicarnosa has been found on sandy soils under pine in Slovakia and northern Italy in the Trento region.

Edibility

The taste of Russula xerampelina is mild. This Russula is considered one of the best edible species of its genus, although the crab, or shrimp taste and smell will persist even when cooking. This is more pronounced and less pleasant in older specimens. The young caps are said to be superb stuffed with any suitable ingredients, and are rarely maggoty.

nasokoun, Argus, Alex99, eng55, siggi, marius-secan has marked this note useful
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Critiques [Translate]

hello Jose
splendid red color and details of this mushroom, very good photo and presentation!
keep photographing! TFS
Nasos

  • Great 
  • Argus Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 5038 W: 260 N: 15594] (50626)
  • [2009-12-05 8:32]

Hello José,
We call this mushroom 'sillkremla' which refers to it tasting like herring!
Nice sharp capture taken with fine colours, lighting against a contrasting habitat Bg and showing how slugs like to eat this species!
Thanks and have a good weekend,
Ivan

  • Great 
  • Alex99 Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 4072 W: 133 N: 7096] (23735)
  • [2009-12-05 9:02]

Hi Jose.
What an appetizing and beautiful mushroom. Blameless reproduction of all its features and nice surroundings including wet dry leaves and stems. Superb colours and details of the shot as well as a framing of the fungi. Well done and TFS.
Alexei.

  • Great 
  • eng55 Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 1256 W: 42 N: 1976] (5892)
  • [2009-12-05 10:52]

Hola Jose,
Another wonderful fungi capture.Colors,POV,sharpness and clear details are perfect.Have a great weekend!
Thanks for posting..

  • Great 
  • siggi Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 3097 W: 109 N: 12399] (52850)
  • [2009-12-05 11:00]

Hello Jose.
Lovely photo of mushroom. The contrast between red of the mushroom and green of the BG makes this image really nice and fresh. this is a very nice composition. The colours and exposure are super.Best regards Siggi

Hello Jose,
Excellent red colours and very good details.
Wonderful composition.
Marius.

  • Great 
  • lousat Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 6595 W: 89 N: 15659] (65489)
  • [2009-12-05 15:08]

Hi Jose,a very strange fungi taken from the best point of view,excellent sharpness and colors also in this difficult light's moment,my best compliments,have a nice Sunday,LUCIANO

Hello Jose,
a very good macro shot of Russula xerampelina, superb sharpness and brilliant colours, a very pleasing rain atmosphere
TFS
Best regards
Maurizio

Hola Jose,
destacaría en esta fotografía el realismo que emana y sobre todo el conseguido contraste de colores.
Un abrazo y buen Domingo amigo Portugués:
Josep Ignasi.

hello Jose
super sharpness picture with good details and beautiful colours
great shot
greeting lou

  • Great 
  • PeterZ Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 5137 W: 166 N: 13121] (49139)
  • [2009-12-06 7:15]

Hello Jose,
Beautiful natural colours in this photo. Excellent sharpness and details. Good contrasting dark BG, composition and POV.
Regards,
Peter

Ciao Jose. Wonderful brigh colours and very good contrast. Nice compo by the right POV to exalt DOF.

Roberto

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