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Photo Information
Copyright: Martin Valliere (marval) Silver Star Critiquer/Silver Note Writer [C: 10 W: 0 N: 19] (160)
Genre: Animals
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2006-05-12
Categories: Mammals
Camera: Pentax *ist DS, Pentax FA 80-320mm/1:4.5-5.6
Exposure: f/5.0, 1/1000 seconds
Photo Version: Original Version
Date Submitted: 2006-05-17 13:20
Viewed: 5101
Points: 2
[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note [French]


MUSK OXEN are large animals with long fur coats. Both the males and females have horns. A musk oxen's coat keeps it snug and warm. For winter they grow thick undercoats of soft brown fleece, and thick overcoats of shaggy, long straight hair that hangs down to the ground. Inuit use the soft underfur for weaving a luxurious wool.


Musk oxen gather in groups of 10 to 20 . They snort when annoyed. When they try to run away from enemies the musk oxen get tired and overheated. If the musk oxen sense danger they form a defensive circle around their young,and face their enemies. They may even charge and try to gore the enemy with their horns. The arctic wolf is their main enemy.


Musk oxen feed on grasses, lichens and willow trees. The herd keeps moving while they are eating. Their hooves spread out allowing the muskoxen to walk on snow without sinking too deep. The sharp hooves help them to get at the grasses that are buried under the snow.


The cows have one calf every two years . A newborn calf has a thick curly coat, but it can die from the freezing cold. It huddles under the mother's long coat to keep warm.


In the early 1900s the musk oxen were overhunted and almost disappeared. They were easy to kill when they formed a circle. Musk oxen were hunted for their meat and the hides were sold . In 1917 the Canadian government passed a law against killing the musk ox. Now there are about 60,000 musk oxen living in Nunavut.


I take this picture in the zoo of St-Felicien Québec/Canada. I took the picture when I was in the small train in the zoo.

No crop, only sharpness.
Body : Pentax ISTDs
Lens : Pentax 80 / 320 mm
speed : 1/1000 sec.
Aperture : F5
Focal : 108mm
Iso : 200

Evelynn has marked this note useful
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To Evelynn: thanksmarval 2 05-19 00:01
To Evelynn: Your picturesmarval 1 05-18 20:26
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Critiques [Translate]

Hi Martin,

The one thing you left out of your note is how it is that you came to take this picture. In my world, one doesn't come across a Musk Ox every day! How close were you and how much zoom did you use and how much was cropped??

It's a nicely exposed, sharp image and thanks for sharing it.

Evelynn ; )

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