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Phoenicurus ochruros

Phoenicurus ochruros
Photo Information
Copyright: Dejan Kulijer (dejo) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 344 W: 51 N: 520] (2242)
Genre: Animals
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2007-04-02
Categories: Birds
Camera: Canon Powershot S2-IS
Exposure: f/4, 1/250 seconds
More Photo Info: [view]
Photo Version: Original Version
Date Submitted: 2008-03-28 14:43
Viewed: 5935
Points: 78
[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note
female of Phoenicurus ochruros (S. G. Gmelin 1774)- Black Redstart

picture taken on Isle of Vilm, Nature Reserve and part of the Biosphere Reserve of South East Rügen.

Is small passerine bird that was formerly classed as a member of the Thrush family (Turdidae), but is now more generally considered to be an Old World flycatcher (Muscicapidae).

It is a widespread breeder in south and central Europe, but very localised in Great Britain. It is resident in the milder parts of its range, but northern birds winter in southern Europe or north Africa. It nests in crevices or holes in buildings.

The Black Redstart is 13-14.5cm in length. The male has no chestnut on the flanks nor white on the forehead. The female is greyer than the Common Redstart, and at any age the grey axillaries and under wing-coverts are distinctive. In the Common Redstart these are buff or chestnut.

The "fire" of the tail labels the bird as a Redstart, but it may be distinguished from the Common Redstart, which is the same size, at 14 cm length, by its sootier appearance, even when the distinctive white wing patch is not apparent, as in immature males.

They typically frequent cliffs and stony ground, but in Britain often breed and winter in industrial complexes that have the bare areas and cliff-like buildings it favours. It will catch passing insects in flight, and migrants may or hunt in the tide-wrack for flies or tiny crustaceans. Its quick ducks of head and body are robin-like, and its tail is often flicked. The male has a rattling song and a tick call.

This species belongs to a Eurasian clade which also includes the Daurian Redstart, Hodgson's Redstart, the White-winged Redstart, and maybe the Ala Shan Redstart. The present species' ancestors diverged from about 3 mya (Late Pliocene) onwards and spread throughout much of Eurasia from 1.5 mya (Early Miocene) on (Ertan 2006). It is not very closely related to the Common Redstart. As these are separated by different behavior and ecological requirements and have not evolved fertilization barriers, the two European species can nonetheless produce apparently fertile and viable hybrids (Grosch 2004).

There are a number of subspecies which differ mainly in upperpart coloration of the adult males. They can be separated into 3 major groups, according to morphology, biogeography, and mtDNA cytochrome b sequence data (Snow et al. 1988, Ertan 2006):

1.) phoenicuroides group: basal Central and Eastern Asian forms which diverged from the ancestral stock as the species slowly spread west (c.3-1.5 mya). Females and juveniles light.

* Phoenicurus ochruros phoenicuroides: Tian Shan Black Redstart
Small; adult males have lower breast, belly and flanks deep rufous, wing-patch absent, sometimes white forehead. Overall quite similar to a much darker Common Redstart with black chest. Females and juveniles are similar to Common Redstart but have an overall sandier, paler color and often a distinct buff eye-ring.
Tian Shan eastwards to Mongolia.

* Phoenicurus ochruros rufiventris: Pamir Black Redstart
Usually large; adult males like phoenicuroides, but darker overall, with black back and rufous-chestnut underside. Females with rufous tinge to underside. Exact limits with phoenicuroides unresolved.
Turkmenistan eastwards through Pamir and Alay mountains to Himalaya.

* Phoenicurus ochruros xerophilus: Chinese Black Redstart
Large; color pattern like phoenicuroides but paler. Doubtfully distinct from phoenicuroides.
China east and between ranges of preceding two.

2.) ochruros group: Eastern European/Western Asian forms, whose lineage separated from the gibraltariensis group c.1.5-0.5 mya. Females and juveniles intermediate.

* Phoenicurus ochruros ochruros: Caucasus Black Redstart
Small, somewhat intermediate between phoenicuroides and gibraltariensis. Generally like latter, but rufous underside, white wing patch usually lacking.
Caucasus and surrounding regions.

* Phoenicurus ochruros semirufus: Levantine Black Redstart
Small; adult males somewhat similar to rufiventris except in size. Black areas extensive.

3.) gibraltariensis group: Western European population, which formed distinct subspecies during the last ice age. Females and juveniles dark.

* Phoenicurus ochruros gibraltariensis: European Black Redstart
Neck, upper back and shoulders dark slate gray in adult males, lighter than face and neck. Some intergradation with aterrimus.
Western Europe to Crimean Peninsula (probably) western Turkey.

* Phoenicurus ochruros aterrimus: Iberian Black Redstart
Neck, upper back and shoulders black in adult males. Some intergradation with gibraltariensis.
Iberia and adjacent North Africa.

source: Wikipedia.com

waylim, Ena, nglen, jcoowanitwong, Juyona, jconceicao, pekkavalo1, boreocypriensis, jpdenk, Alex99, gracious, uleko, haraprasan, JoseMiguel, Necipp, Luis52, ramthakur, jrobertop, CeltickRanger, maurydv, izler, hester, JPlumb, Argus, jusninasirun has marked this note useful
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Critiques [Translate]

  • Great 
  • Ena Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 324 W: 61 N: 594] (2454)
  • [2008-03-28 14:46]

Hej cao,
Super slicica!
Ko li je odredio ovu pticu, pitam se?! :-))

  • Great 
  • lousat Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 6595 W: 89 N: 15659] (65489)
  • [2008-03-28 14:51]

Hi Dejan,what a nice colours ,excellent point of view and wodnderfull note,very very interesting work,thanks for share,have a nice week end,Luciano

  • Great 
  • nglen Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 2883 W: 30 N: 9683] (36145)
  • [2008-03-28 14:51]

Hi Dejan. The light in so nice in the close up of the Black Redstart. which you have captured with fine detail and natural looking colours. a nice pov/dof. well done TFS.
Have a nice weekend.

  • Great 
  • waylim Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 296 W: 8 N: 489] (1765)
  • [2008-03-28 14:52]

This is a beautiful image of the little poenicurus ochruros. Good clarity and sharpness. Beautiful golden light. Composition is good, but it could be a little better if the bird is more to the left, so it's not so center. Very lovely image and good quality. thank so much for sharing and have a good weekend.

Hi Dejan,
Nice picture of this Black Redstart. Sharp and well exposed image. The soft background is perfect. Giving 3D feeling. Very well done.

  • Great 
  • Juyona Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor [C: 2232 W: 10 N: 2971] (16891)
  • [2008-03-29 0:59]

Hola Dejan,
precioso trabajo y bello pov,
hermoso color y sensacional pose.

Hi Dejan,

Wonderful picture.Great shot,splendid capture with excellent details.

Hi Dejan

Great shot with good POV, colours and details.



Hi frien Dejan,
Lovely and splendid shot of this beautiful female Black Redstart.Nice composition in all respects my friend. TFS.

  • Great 
  • Alex99 Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 4072 W: 133 N: 7096] (23735)
  • [2008-03-29 11:40]

Hi Dejan.
Amazing scene and perfect quality of the image. DOF is wonderful. All image of the bird and nice tree branches are in focus and perfectly sharp and BG is absolutely smooth and colourful. Bravo and best wishes.

Hello Dejan!,
Very fine image indeed of this bird!
the exposure and focus is spot with very sharp details in this lovely shot!
very well done
best regards

  • Great 
  • Nilson Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 488 W: 0 N: 566] (4423)
  • [2008-03-29 15:15]

Exelente foto muito bem focada e com nitides ótima parabéns.

Hi Dejan, cute bird in lovely pose with beautiful colors, splendid details and good focus, excellent sharpness, very well done, ciao Silvio

  • Great 
  • uleko Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 3396 W: 172 N: 3310] (10940)
  • [2008-03-30 1:02]

Hello Dejan,
We normally have a Black Redstart nesting on a factory building down the harbour here. It seems to like industrial estates and a lot of noise!! I don't know how common they're in Holland but we get very excited when we see one! This is a very fine capture of the female showing her red tail feathers very nicely. Good light and fine details. I like the background too. Personally I would place the bird a bit off-centre but otherwise a fine composition too.
TFS and regards, Ulla

Hi Dejan,
A nice capture of this beautiful redstart bird. Excellent composition and details. Thanks a lot for sharing.

Hi Dejan,
A very sunny and clear image!
I like a lot the good pose and clear details got on the bird, as well as the way it fits between the two hanging branches at the top of the picture.
Congratulations and thanks for share.
My best regards,

Hello Dejan, good sharp catch of this black redstart. Good position to show the wings and back detail. It's nice you got some catch light in the eye. tfs rgds Necip

  • Great 
  • PaulH Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 1137 W: 26 N: 3879] (13882)
  • [2008-03-31 8:17]

Hi Dejan,
very nice golden light and an excellent DOF, well done great work!

  • Great 
  • Luis52 Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 1175 W: 8 N: 4240] (15809)
  • [2008-03-31 8:46]

Hola Dejan.
Never seen this bird before, He sure have a very nice colors. Great image here my friend.

  • Great 
  • EOSF1 Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 1393 W: 119 N: 5267] (23955)
  • [2008-03-31 18:48]

Hello Dejan, well shot bird with a very good composition and a perfect exposure. The light is warm and beautiful and I like the background, well done, thanks!


  • Great 
  • OzBY Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 183 W: 2 N: 351] (1355)
  • [2008-03-31 23:19]

Hi Dejan

Great picture of this bird
Great color, DOF, lighting and background


  • Great 
  • Mana Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 1772 W: 36 N: 5597] (18598)
  • [2008-04-01 2:01]

Hi Dejan,
Splendid shot of this cute bird with very impressive sharpness and colours. Great warm lighting and perfect exposure levels. You have captured a fine pose here with a fine DOF and POV. The BG looks great. Very nicely composed. Kudos.

The angle of light in this image spotlights the bird very well, Dejan.
Great perspective, sharp focus and wonderful details on the plumage of the Black Redstart.
TFS and all the best.

Hello Dejan
Il est très mignon cet oiseau, aux coumleurs cendrées.
Meric pour nous montrer cette espèce

Hi Dejan.
Great capture of this wonderful bird!
Excellent coloration and details.
Very good sharpness and POV.
Very well done!
José Roberto

  • Great 
  • chiliu Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 1457 W: 0 N: 1176] (6526)
  • [2008-04-01 22:54]

Hi Dejan,
Excellent capture of this beautiful bird, good focus and great detail.

Bellissima immagine di codirosso spazzacamico, molto belle la composizione con i rami orizzontali e la posa, buoni i dettagli e molto belli i colori con la luce calda e radente. Grazie e complimenti. Ciao Maurizio

hello Dejan

lovely shot of this little bird, with fine POV, excellent DOF,
excellent luminosity of the image, great sharpness and details, TFS


  • Great 
  • izler Gold Star Critiquer [C: 1387 W: 3 N: 9] (44)
  • [2008-04-02 12:58]

hello dejan
good capture of this cute bird under the harsh light
i like composition, BG, colours and informative note

Hello Dejan,
Good point of view and fine details in the plumage!
An attractive composition, appealing in its simplicity...
Good natural colours and a fine sense of depth!
Pablo -

  • Great 
  • hester Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 1515 W: 18 N: 3165] (11638)
  • [2008-04-05 13:14]

Hi Dejan

Lovely light and colour tones in this shot. Beautifully sharp and with excellent DOF. It is a lovely looking bird



  • Great 
  • arfer Gold Star Critiquer [C: 2731 W: 0 N: 0] (0)
  • [2008-04-05 22:29]

Hello Dejan

A lovely composition bathed in warm light.
The focus is very good and the little Redstart is seen well with very good plumage detail.
Both the POV and DOF are well done.


  • Great 
  • cako Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 485 W: 0 N: 772] (3395)
  • [2008-04-10 10:53]

Hi Dejan
this is very good composition and sharp
well done.

  • Great 
  • JPlumb Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 618 W: 158 N: 896] (2904)
  • [2008-04-14 21:48]

Hi Dejan, this is a good close capture of this female Black Redstart. This is the first time I've seen one of these so thanks for the introduction. Lighting is excellent giving you great colour and detail. Your depth of field was handled well to give us some visibility of the background, while muting it from your subject.

Thanks, John

  • Great 
  • wuta Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 855 W: 2 N: 617] (2142)
  • [2008-04-18 7:58]

Hello Dejan , Splendid shot from this bird ,good compositie colours details pov dof , good job , Greetings Teunie .

Hello Dejan,
Very good capture, excellent composition and pov, good sharpness and depth of field, beautiful colors and nice clarity.

Bon cadrage et excellentes explications.
Bonne journée.

  • Great 
  • Argus Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 5038 W: 260 N: 15594] (50626)
  • [2009-02-07 23:39]

Hello Dejan,
I missed this superb capture of a female Black Redstart taken from a great POV with fine technical qualities for a compact camera against a pleasing OOF natural BG.
TFS and I hope to see more images from you this year!
Best regards,

Hi Dejan,

Very nice pov on this bird. The perch and sharpness of the composition is very good. Well silenced bg for pleasant view. TFS and best regards,


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