|[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note|
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Sonchus oleraceus L. [TR:]Eşek marulu, eşek helvası, kuzu gevreği [EN:]Common sowthistle, Sow thistle, Smooth Sow Thistle, Annual Sow Thistle, Hare's Colwort, Hare's Thistle, Milky Tassel, Swinies
Annual or biennial, 10-150 cm, often glandular-hairy above and white-hairy at top of peduncles. Basal leaves ovate to obovate, entire or lobed at apex, with winged petiole, lower cauline leaves oblong to spathulate, pinnatifid-runcinate, lobes not narrowed at base, auricles acute, upper cauline leaves ovate to lanceolate, entire or pinnatifid, with acute auricles; all leaves with entire or dentate margin. Involucre urceolate-campanulate, sometimes glandular-hairy. Capitula 2-2,5 cm broad. Ligules pale yellow, outer ones often crimson on back, ± equal to corolla tubes. Achene 2-3 mm, slightly compressed, each face 3-ribbed, minutely tuberculate between ribs. Pappus 6-10 mm.
Habitat: Fields, waste places.
Altitude: sea level-1300 m.
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Taraxacum officinale Weber [TR:]Karahindiba [EN:]Common Dandelion
No type of this species is known and the description is vague. There are many records for this species from all over Turkey; they are misidentifications for plants of several sections.
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Leontodon saxatilis Lam.[EN:]Lesser hawkbit
Perennial, with a short praemorse rhizome. Indumentum of forked hairs. Stems 6-17 cm, unbranched, ± ebracteate. Leaves 35-55 x 5-6 mm, oblanceolate in outline, tapering at base, subentire to distantly serrate or lobed, sparsely hispid. Involucre hemispherical, 2-3-seriate, 6-9mm long; phyllaries with membranous margins, glabrous, flat in fruit. Outer achenes narrowed at apex but scarcely beaked, coronate; inner beaked, with yellowish pappus.
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Calendula arvensis L. [TR:]Portakal nergis [EN:]Field marigold
Erect or sprawling annual. Stems usually much branched, (5-)15-25(-30) cm, often thinly arachnoid-floccose. Leaves oblong or narrowly obovate, (1-)3-8(-10) x (0,4-)0,5-1,4(-2) cm, pubescent or thinly floccose, acute or obtuse, with subentire or obscurely denticulate margins. Capitula 1-2 cm broad (incl. ligules); ligulate flowers less than 2 x as long as phyllaries, yellow or orange; tubular flowers concolorous with ligulate ones, or sometimes brown or violet-purple. Achenes heteromorphic; outer beaked and cymbiform, or wholly cymbiform, inner annulate and rugose, or occasionally all achenes annulate and rugose.
Habitat: Cultivated fields, roadsides and waste ground, occasionally on rocky hillsides.
Altitude: sea level- 2000 m, but usually lowland.
Reference: Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands Vol: 5
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