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Galega officinalis

Galega officinalis
Photo Information
Copyright: Luciano Gollini (lousat) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 6595 W: 89 N: 15659] (65489)
Genre: Plants
Medium: Color
Date Taken: 2011-06-15
Categories: Flowers
Camera: Sony Cybershot DSC HX1
Exposure: f/4.5, 1/500 seconds
More Photo Info: [view]
Photo Version: Original Version
Date Submitted: 2012-01-25 11:44
Viewed: 2692
Points: 44
[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note

Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Galega
Species: G. officinalis

Galega officinalis, commonly known as goat's rue, French lilac, Italian fitch or professor-weed, is an herbaceous plant in the Faboideae subfamily. It is native to the Middle East, but it has been naturalised in Europe, western Asia, and western Pakistan. The plant has been extensively cultivated as a forage crop, an ornamental, a bee plant and as green manure.Its name derives from gale (milk) and ega (to bring on), as Galega has been used as a galactogogue in small domestic animals (hence the name "Goat's rue"). Galega bicolor is a synonym. It is a hardy perennial that blooms in the summer months.
Galega is used as a food plant by the larva of Coleophora vicinella, a species of moth.
In 1891, goat's rue was introduced to Cache County, Utah, for use as a forage crop. It escaped cultivation and is now a weed and agricultural pest, though it is still confined to that county. As a result it has been placed on the Federal Noxious Weed List in the United States. It was collected in Colorado, Connecticut and New York prior to the 1930s, and in Maine and Pennsylvania in the 1960s, but no more collections have been made in these areas since and the populations are presumed to have died out. It has also been found in Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, and New Zealand.
Galega officinalis has been known since the Middle Ages for relieving the symptoms of diabetes mellitus. Upon analysis, it turned out to contain compounds related to guanidine, a substance that decreases blood sugar by mechanisms including a decrease in insulin resistance, but were too toxic for human use. Georges Tanret identified an alkaloid from this plant, galegine, that was less toxic, and this was evaluated in unsuccessful clinical trials in patients with diabetes in the 1920s and 1930s.
Other related compounds were being investigated clinically at this time, including biguanide derivatives. This work led ultimately to the discovery of metformin (Glucophage), currently recommended in international guidelines for diabetes management as the first choice for antidiabetic pharmacotherapy alongside diet and exercise, and the older agent phenformin, which has been withdrawn in most countries due to an unacceptable risk of lactic acidosis (the risk of lactic acidosis with metformin is no higher than with other antidiabetic therapies when it is prescribed according to its label).The study of galegine and related molecules in the first half of the 20th century is regarded as an important milestone in the development of oral antidiabetic pharmacotherapy.
Goat's Rue is also cited by the SAS Survival Guide by John "Lofty" Wiseman, as having a sedative effect on fish. The roots and flowers are the most potent, but the most common method is to simply crush the entire plant and throw into a body of water with restricted flow. The fish that then float to the top are safe to consume.


Famiglia: Leguminose

Nome volgare: Galega.capraggine

Caratteristiche: Pianta erbacea perenne con un corto rizoma da cui si diparte un abbondante sistema radicale; il fusto è alto fino a un metro e anche di più nelle piante coltivate.
Le foglie sono alterne sul fusto; alla base del picciolo sono inserite due brattee, dette stipole, allungato-acuminate; le foglie sono imparipennate, hanno cioè un numero dispari (undici-diciannove) di foglioline; queste sono oblungo-lanceolate e mucronate all'apice, cioè hanno una punta sottile posta all'apice; il margine è intero.
I fiori, riuniti in racemi all'ascella delle foglie superiori e più lunghi di queste ultime, hanno un corto peduncolo con una brattea molto sottile alla base; il calice, di forma campanulata, ha cinque denti triangolari allungati; la corolla, lilla pallido o celeste, ha la stessa struttura di quella del Fagiolo con una carena, due ali e un vessillo.
Il frutto è un legume lineare-cilindrico ristretto nello spazio fra un seme e l'altro; i semi sono allungati, compressi lateralmente e di colore bruno.

Habitat: Luoghi umidi ed erbosi.0-1300 m. Maggio luglio

Proprietà farmaceutiche: ipoglicemizzanti, rinfrescanti. (Droga usata: parte aerea della pianta).

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ThreadThread Starter Messages Updated
To vanda: ....lousat 1 01-29 02:00
To Silvio2006: ...lousat 4 01-27 04:53
To Porteplume: ....lousat 2 01-25 13:45
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Critiques [Translate]

  • Great 
  • siggi Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 3097 W: 109 N: 12399] (52850)
  • [2012-01-25 11:55]

Hello Luciano.
fine picture of a beautiful flower.The light and colours are really nice.
Fine details and shallow DOF helps the plant to standout well.Well done.
Best regards Siggi

  • Great 
  • PeterZ Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 5137 W: 166 N: 13121] (49139)
  • [2012-01-25 12:03]

Hello Luciano,
A photo with a beautiful flower in splendid light and contrasting colours. Good sharpness, DOF, POV and composition.

Hello Luciano,
Lovely flower with fantastic details,excellent sharpness,splendid light and wonderful natural colors.
Best regards

Hi Luciano,

Welcome on TN.
A great close-up and a very crisp image. The colours are luminous and very attractive.
Please don't forget to mention your source in your notes because of text copyright reasons.

Amicalement - Viviane

Bonsoir Luciano,

Les fleurs sont bien placées dans le cadrage. La prise de vue permet de voir les détails et les couleursdes Galégas officinal. La bonne luminosité donne de belles teintes aux couleurs de l'image. Bonne soirée.


Salut Luciano

Une très jolie photo de fleur sauvage,
excellent POV et cadrage approprié, jolie lumière,
excellent focus netteté et détails, joli background,



  • Great 
  • ana974 Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 477 W: 48 N: 968] (4857)
  • [2012-01-25 16:27]

Hi Luciano!
Beautiful shot with so much lightness and lovely composition.A photo with a taste of spring...I love it! Bravo! TFS
Regards from,

PS: thanks for your kind comments in my two last pics.It´s very kind of you and I love your support!

Hello Luciano.
I like the name "professor-weed" and this flower is beautiful to grace the Italian soil. Nicely captured with fine details.
Thanks and have a nice day,

Very pretty flower you captured in the summer of 2011, Luciano.
I love the subtle colours on its petals.
A well composed and beautiful image.
Thanks and regards.

Congratulations Luciano for this 1st picture of this lovely flower!
Very well captured in wonderful light & nice green BG. Good POV & great sharpness too.

Hello Luciano
Beautiful photo with good composition, wonderful colours, fantastic lighting and good sharpness.

Ciao Luciano,
Congratulations for this first time photo!Important medizin Plant.
regards, Joska

  • Great 
  • foozi Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 2791 W: 0 N: 6696] (25839)
  • [2012-01-26 0:52]

Hello Luciano,
excellent capture of the flower. The view stands out wonderfully and the color contrast work out so well,
Exciting presentation.


Ciao Luciano. Bene la novità. Pazzesca la gestione luce. Duretta di sharp.


Hi Luciano,
amazing flower. Great use of light. Excellent point of view. Beautiful composition.
Thanks for sharing,

hello Luciano
Great details and beautiful colours
the light and sharpness are super good
thanks greeting lou

Ciao Luciano, Congratulations on your TN first, beautiful S like structure with this lovely array of blooms, splendid lighting, nice and sharp, the top right hand corner catch-light is a little disturbing however a very pleasing picture indeed, great effort here Luciano and very well done,
Best Regards,


Hello Luciano,
Congratulations on the 1st on TN with this beautiful of flower!
A very nice picture of a beautiful flower, great lighting, good details sharpness, beautiful colours and very good composition, a very well captured,
Thanks for sharing and have a nice weekend,
Best Regards,

Hello Luciano,
Beautiful flowers, nicely lit. Nice to look at the symptoms of summer when in our minus 12 degrees Celsius and is soon to be minus 22!

Ciao Luciano, complimenti per la prima, gran bel fiore, splendida luce, ottima nitidezza e magnifici colori, bravissimo, buon week end, ciao Silvio
PS computer ko e per un po' di tempo non ho niente da postare su TN :(

  • Great 
  • Argus Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 5038 W: 260 N: 15594] (50626)
  • [2012-01-27 5:51]

Hello Luciano,
A very fine capture of the flowers of a plant that is new to me.
The POV against the contrasting OOF green natural BG is excellent and shows its features with supperb sharpness and natural colours in a pleasing composition.
Thanks for this pleasant education!
Have a good weekend,

  • Great 
  • Cobo Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 236 W: 1 N: 535] (5799)
  • [2012-01-27 10:46]

Unos colores y luz preciosos. Enhorabuena.

  • Great 
  • vanda Gold Star Critiquer/Silver Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 338 W: 25 N: 754] (3673)
  • [2012-01-28 10:46]
  • [+]

Ciao Luciano!
Complimenti per lo scoop: mi sono sempre chiesta come fate a sapere che è una novità per TN.
Ottimo scatto, da un POV che direi perfetto per farci conoscere bene questo fiore, molto grazioso. Dettagli eccellenti, come sempre, e ottimo DOF che isola il soggetto.
Bella luce e perfetto il formato verticale.
Buona serata e buona dpomenica.
Ciao! Vanda

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