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Polyommatus eumedon, (Esper,)
The Geranium Argus
Turkish Name: Çokgözlü Geranyummavisi Kelebeği.
Distribution in Turkey: Marmara, Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia.
Distribution in the world: The total range extends from central and northern Europe via Turkey, the Urals, Tien Shan and Altai to Mongolia. Island-like occurrences are known from northern and eastern Spain, southern France, central Italy to Sicily and the southern Balkans.
Living Area: The altitudinal distribution extends depending on the latitude of sea level to 2400 m against, in Fennoscandia to a maximum of 1300 meters. Habitat are both dry and wet, often interspersed with bushes or trees, flower-rich meadows and tall herb communities with adequate stocks of caterpillars forage crops.
Flight time: The adults fly in one generation, depending on the altitude, from mid-May to mid-August.
Food Plants of the caterpillar: food plants of the caterpillars are sangineum Geranium , Geranium sylvaticum , Geranium tuberosum , Geranium palustre , Geranium pratense and geranium cinereum . The caterpillar eats before the winter only to the unripe fruit, wintered small and eats then also on the leaves. She lives in symbiosis with Lasius alienus , and Myrmica - and Tapinoma species.
Description-Notes: Uppersides of both sexes are dark brown, usually with submarginal orange lunules on hindwing. Grayish brown with pale submarginal band of orange spots and a postmedian band of white -ringed black spots on both wings. Hindwing has conspicuous blue basal flush. Majority of individuals have a straight white stripe connecting hindwing discoidal spot to submarginal band on hindwing
Origin of the name: Evmed (Greek mythology) - Trojan Dolon father, scout, famous for the speed races.
Endangerment : Strongly endangered.
Endangerment factors: Polyommatus eumedon is endangered only locally (tourism activities, forest/pasture separation, overgrazing). But in the lowlands the butterfly is threatened with extinction in many places and is still more common only regionally. Typical endangerment factors are the often economically senseless mowing down to the very edge of a stream, intense management and mowing of ditches, afforestation and planting groves and construction of hydroelectric power plants.
Wingspan: 24-34 mm long.
• Northern Brown Argus - Aricia artaxerxes, (Fabricius, 1793)
• Brown Argus - Aricia agestis, (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775)
• Spanish Argus - Aricia morronensis, (Ribbe, 1910)
• Blue Argus - Aricia anteros, (Freyer, 1839)
1. Baytas A., 2007. A field guide to the butterflies of Turkey, NTV Yayinlari, Istanbul.80 pp.
2. Lepiforum.de : http://www.lepiforum.de/lepiwiki.pl?Aricia_Eumedon
3. Lepidoptera and their ecology » by Wolfgang Wagner : http://www.pyrgus.de/Polyommatus_eumedon_en.html
4. Lepidoptera Caucasi : http://babochki-kavkaza.ru/index.php/lycaenidae-/88-eumedonia-eumedon-/154--eumedonia-eumedon.html
5. Moths and Butterflies of Europe : http://www.leps.it/indexjs.htm?SpeciesPages/EumedEumed.htm
6. EuroButterflies » Matt Rowling : http://www.eurobutterflies.com/sp/eumedon.php
7. Anonymous Butterflies of Turkey : http://www.trakel.org/kelebekler/[email protected]&tur=Geranyum%20%C3%87okg%C3%B6zl%C3%BCs%C3%BC
8. Butterflies Watching & Photography Society in Turkey : http://www.adamerkelebek.org/GozlemFoto.asp?CinsId=33&FamilyaId=7&TurId=362&durum=7
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