|Copyright: Ingrid Ugussi (Skye)
|Date Taken: 2009-04-15|
|Exposure: f/8, 1/180 seconds|
|More Photo Info: [view]|
|Photo Version: Original Version|
|Date Submitted: 2009-09-09 12:31|
|[Note Guidelines] Photographer's Note|
|Anthocharis cardamines Linnaeus 1758|
En: Orange Tip
The Orange Tip (Anthocharis cardamines) is a butterfly in the Pieridae family.
Appearance, behaviour and distribution
So named because of the male's bright orange tips to his forewings. The males are a common sight in spring flying along hedgerows and damp meadows in search of the more reclusive female which lacks the orange and is often mistaken for one of the other 'White' butterflies. The undersides are mottled green and white and create a superb camouflage when settled on flowerheads such as Cow Parsley and Garlic Mustard Alliaria petiolata. The male is able to hide his orange tips by tucking the forwings behind the hindwings at rest. If you look closely at the mottling you will see that the green colour is in fact made up of a mixture of black and yellow scales. It is found across Europe, and eastwards into temperate Asia as far as Japan. The past 30 years has seen a rapid increase in the range of the Orange Tip in the UK particularly in Scotland and Ireland, probably in response to climate change.
Lifecycle and foodplants
The female lays eggs singly on the flowerheads of Cuckooflower Cardimine pratensis and Garlic Mustard and many other species of wild Crucifers, all of which contain chemicals called glucosinolates. Females are attracted to larger flowers, such as Hesperis matronalis, even though some such species are poor larval hosts. Selection of foodplants is triggered by the presence of mustard oils, which are detected by chemosensory hairs on the fore-legs. Reproductive rate of females appears to be limited by difficulties in finding suitable hosts. As a consequence, the species has evolved to use a wide range of crucifers. The eggs are white to begin with but change to a bright orange after a few days before darkening off just before hatching. Because the larvae feed almost exclusively on the flowers and developing seedpods there is rarely enough food to support more than one larva per plant. If two larvae meet one will often be eaten by the other to eliminate its competitor. Newly hatched larvae will also eat unhatched eggs for the same reason. To stop eggs from being laid on plants already laid on the female leaves a pheromone to deter future females from laying. There are five larval instars. The green and white caterpillar is attacked by several natural enemies (notably Tachinid flies and Braconid wasps). Pupation occurs in early summer in scrubby vegetation near the foodplant, where they stay to emerge the following spring. Recent research suggests that the emergence of the butterfly may be delayed for as much as two years, thus ensuring the species against unfavourable conditions in a given season.
Damp pastures and meadows, damp woodland edges and glades, riverbanks, ditches, dykes, fens, railway cuttings and country lanes.
Flight-period: Late March-Junie, univoltine.
This male is photographed in a dry meadow of a protected area of Istria named "Kamenjak".
roges, nasokoun, nikosrio, livius has marked this note useful
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- [2009-09-09 14:06]
Good evening Ingrid,
Excellent this macro. Exceptional made and played.
One months ago and I visited your country. It was the first time I liked a lot! Hope you come back.
I like very much.
Have a beautiful evening,
- [2009-09-09 22:54]
Beautiful lighting and good colors, composition could have been better. Too much of white border. tfs.
very good use of light, with this composition and this POV you create a very good result, background and colours also great
TFS and Welcome to TN
Beautifull work, nice colors, great light, sharpness and well blured BG,
TFS, best regards,
- [2009-09-10 3:19]
wonderful shot of this beautiful Orange Tip with very impressive sharpness, colors and details. Great exposure and focusing. Interesting back light.
An applause! this a shot superb artistical, whith a excellent ligth, very well handled. Perfect composition, and suitable frame. Congratulations!
**Masterfull note information, very useful.
- [2009-09-11 5:57]
Nice picture,good clarity.Well done.Cheers.Alin.